advertisement

Homework 6 Chapter 21 Problem 40. A dead battery is charged by connecting it to the live battery of another car with jumper cables (Fig. P21.40). Determine the current in the starter and in the dead battery. Let VL = 12 V and RL = 0.01Ω be the parameters of the live battery, VD = 10 V and RD = 1.00Ω be the parameters of the dead battery, and RS = 0.06Ω be the resistance of the starter. Let IL be the current going upward in the left branch, ID be the current going upward in the middle branch, and IS be the current going downward in the right branch. Applying Kirchoff’s junction rule to the top node, we have IL + ID − IS = 0 (1) Applying Kirchoff’s loop rule to the outer and right loops respectively, we have VL − IL RL − IS RS = 0 VD − ID RD − IS RS = 0 Solving these using linear algebra (or your method of choice) 0 1 1 −1 IL 1 1 −1 IL VL = RL 0 RS ID = 0.01 0 0.06 ID VD 0 RD RS IS 0 1.00 0.06 IS 172 IL 0.850 15.0 −0.850 0 ID = 0.0085 −0.850 0.992 12 = −0.283 A 171 IS −0.142 14.2 0.142 10 (2) (3) (4) (5) Where I2 < 0 indicates that the current in the middle branch actually flows downward, recharging the dead battery. Problem 46. A C = 10.0 µF ca[acotpr os sharged by a ε = 10.0 V battery through a resistance R. The capacitor reaches a potential difference of VC (t f ) = 4.00 V at the instant t f = 3.00 s after the charging begins. Find R. Applying Kirchoff’s loop rule, q − IR = 0 C q dq = ε− R dt C dq Cε − q = dt RC dq dt = Cε − q RC Z Z dq dt = Cε − q RC − ln(Cε − q) = t/RC + A ε −VC −VR = ε − −t/RC Cε − q = Be q = Cε − Be (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) −t/RC q = Cε(1 − e−t/RC ) (13) (14) Where A is a constant of integration, B = e−A is another way of writing that constant, Cε = Q (because as t → ∞, q → Q), and B = Q = Cε (because at t = 0, q = 0). Note: The book derives this on pages 709-710 if you want more details. Now applying this to our particular problem, VC (t f ) = q(t f ) Cε = (1 − e−t f /RC ) C C (15) VC (t f ) = 1 − e−t f /RC ε VC (t f ) e−t f /RC = 1 − ε −t f VC (t f ) = ln 1 − RC ε −t f −3.00 s R= = = 587 kΩ −6 C ln(1 −VC (t f )/ε) 10.0 · 10 F · ln(1 − 4.00 V/10.0 V) 1 (16) (17) (18) (19) Problem 55. Four V = 1.50 V AA batteries in series are used to power a transistor radio. If the batteries can move a charge of ∆Q = 240 C, how long will they last if the radio has a resistance of R = 200Ω? Using Kirchoff’s loop rule, V +V +V +V − IR = 0 ∆q 4V = I= R ∆t ∆qR 240 C · 200Ω ∆t = = = 8000 s = 2.22 hours 4V 4 · 1.50 V 2 (20) (21) (22)